|Source: Nicolas Escalante, Agata Rymkiewicz, Martin Kranert, 2012. Understanding Waste Management in a Megacity - Experiences in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia|
From a source near and dear to my heart, as I have been working in Addis Ababa on waste management for the past year, comes this MFA diagram about the waste management sector. Unfortunately, it is not quantified.
It appears after the last post and this new publication that there is a trend towards a world with colored MFA diagrams now. This MFA is one of three that together make up the aluminum cycle.
|Source: R. Villarroel Walker, M. B. Beck, 2012. Understanding the metabolism of urban-rural ecosystems: A multi-sectoral systems analysis.|
This paper has several MFA diagrams of various systems. The graphic style uses unlikely color-filled boxes for certain actors. The paper is available online from Urban Ecosystems.
|Source: Ken USHIJIMA, Mitsuteru IRIE, Neni SINTAWARDANI, Jovita TRIASTUTI, Umi HAMIDAH, Tadaharu ISHIKAWA, Naoyuki FUNAMIZU, 2012. Sustainable design of sanitation system based on material and value flow analysis for urban slum in Indonesia|
This MFA was created in partnership between Japanese and Indonesian universities. The paper includes MFA and Value Flow Analysis (VFA… new blog?). In trying to find the affordability to pay for waste services, they found that garbage and excreta costs are 0.7% and 1.1% respectively of per capita income.
|Source: T. A. Terekhanova, B. Helm, J. Traenckner and P. Krebs, 2012. IWRM decision support with material flow analysis: consideration of urban system input.|
This MFA was created as part of a review of material flow analysis tools by the authors who examined the potential of MFA in the field of integrated water resources management (IWRM) in urban systems. In the above diagram, depicted emission pathways include Flows from combined sewer system diverted directly into receiving water object (C7) and Effluent from municipal WWTP (E1). I find the diagram to be compelling, and wonder how it would work as a base for a substance flow analysis looking at pollutants.
Source: Hiroaki Takiguchi and Kazuku Morita, 2012. Global Flow Analysis of Crystalline Silicon. The University of Tokyo, Japan
This paper looks at the production of crystalline silicone, one of the basic ingredients of solar photovoltaic panels.
|Source: Bruno Kestemont, Marc Kerkhove, 2010. Material flow accounting of an Indian village.|
This illustrated MFA shows the synthetic ecosystem of an Indian village. Created by scholars from Belgium, I would say this fits into the “Belgian School” of MFA diagrams, influenced by the urban metabolism of Brussels illustrated MFA diagram, as I posted earlier, with heavy reliance on cartoonish pictograms. Noticeable symbiotic elements are the connection of the human waste and manure into the Silva and Saltrus grove, which then supplies the settlement with fuel wood.
|Source: Olli Salmi, 2006. Eco-efficiency and industrial symbiosis – a counterfactual analysis of a mining community.|
This MFA pertains to a non-realized industrial symbiosis project planned for the Russian Kola Science Center in mid-1980, in which the author investigates what may have been the benefit of the symbiotic system. What is interesting about the specific methodology of this MFA is that several different materials are considered simultaneously in the various flows. For example, one flow is “phosphate” while another is “cement”. While the author does not go so far as to include energy flows in addition, it is noticeably different than single-material MFAs.
|Source: Fabrice Mathieuxa, Daniel Brissaud, 2010. End-of-life product-specific material flow analysis. Application to aluminum coming from end-of-life commercial vehicles in Europe.|
System definition and results of this MFA of aluminum in vehicles. What is interesting about this research is the use of sub-systems to describe EU-15 and EU-10 (EU-15 is the member countries in the European Union prior to the accession of ten candidate countries on 1 May 2004).
|Source: Mingming Hu, Stefan Pauliuk, Tao Wang, Gjalt Huppes, Ester van der Voet, Daniel B. Müller, 2009. Iron and steel in Chinese residential buildings: A dynamic analysis.|
Some of the dynamics considered in this MFA are lifetime, birthrates, per capita floor area, and urbanization rates in China. Previously, a dynamic material flow analysis (MFA) model was developed to analyze the dynamics of the rural and the urban housing systems in China. That model was expanded to analyze iron and steel demand and scrap availability from the housing sector. In the diagram, a conceptual outline of the stock dynamics model, rectangles represent processes, ovals depict flows, hexagons illustrate determinants or drivers and dashed lines represent influences between variables.
Certainly interesting work from Chongqing University, Institute of Environmental Sciences, and Norwegian University of Science and Technology. I am not that familiar with dynamic MFA, but I can certainly appreciate how it expands the static MFA methodology.
|Source: Gernot Stoeglehner, Peter Edwards, Peter Daniels, Michael Narodoslawsky, 2011. The water supply footprint (WSF): a strategic planning tool for sustainable regional and local water supplies.|
Merry Christmas 2011, this year I present to you this unintelligible MFA from Australia. I have never been a fan of the MFA diagram methodology that uses overly-large sankey arrows in comparison to the processes, but this takes it to another level by incorporating a background satellite image, gradients, transparency overlays of flows, and photos. Plus there is a bonus sankey-distortion on the “discharge to ocean” flow on the right, which grows after turning right from the “sewerage and drainage services” process.
|Source: Min Qiao, Yuan-Ming Zheng, Yong-Guan Zhu, 2011. Material flow analysis of phosphorus through food consumption in two megacities in northern China.|
This simple MFA shows the phosphorus flows through food consumption in Beijing in 2008 (in tons).