|Source: OECD, 2008. Measuring material flows and resource productivity.|
There are a Material Flow Analysis diagrams of iron and steel flows in the EU:
A study of iron and steel flows in 2000 in the European Union showed that an input of about 120 Mt of iron ore (of which 98 Mt was imported) yielded 98 Mt of primary crude steel (i.e. produced directly from iron ore and coke). A further 65 Mt, representing 40% of total crude steel production, were produced as secondary crude steel, produced from scrap steel. The output of about 135 Mt of steel in finished steel products in EU15 countries is based on a gross total of direct and indirect solid material flows of about 739 Mt, including about 422 Mt overburden and 121 Mt of other mining waste from the extraction and refinement of iron ore, ferroalloys (chromium, manganese and nickel), and hard coal. Only about 18% of the solid materials moved for the manufacture of the iron and steel cycle end up in the finished product.